A origeme evolução de taurinos e zebuinos

Wilham JORGE

Resumo


As duas formas de gado, identificadas como taurinos e zebuínos, são basicamente diferenciadas entre si pela ausência e presença de cupim ou giba. Os fetos com poucas semanas já possuem o cupim. Os bovinos são hoje representados por cerca de 800 raças, numa população mundial de 1,4 bilhões de animais. Destas, cerca de 480 são taurinos e estão na Europa. No Brasil são cerca de 60 raças, o que representa 7,5% do total. Os trabalhos sobre o seqüenciamento e análise do genoma bovino publicados na Science em 2009, realizado em taurinos, zebuínos e seus cruzamentos, representam o esforço de um Consorcio de três centenas de pesquisadores de 25 países. Os resultados são capazes de identificar a variabilidade genética que afetam a produção de leite e carne, a reprodução, a resistência à doenças, bem como um guia para a seleção individual nos programas de cruzamentos. Os estudos recentes do DNA mitocondrial de fósseis e de animais viventes indicam que populações do extinto auroque (Bos primigenius) foram os progenitores do gado europeu (Bos taurus taurus) e do gado zebu (Bos taurus indicus). Daí a proposta de denominação das duas subespécies de bovinos: Bos primigenius taurus para os taurinos e Bos primigenius indicus para os zebuínos. Evidências arqueológicas mostraram que taurinos e zebuínos surgiram independentemente em pelo menos dois locais de domesticação entre 10.000 a 8.000 anos atrás provenientes de distintos grupos de auroque. Os taurinos emergiram do Oriente Próximo (Crescente Fértil) e os zebuínos do Vale do rio Indo (hoje Paquistão) com difusão pela India e mais recentemente (3.000 anos) com a introdução de machos no norte da África. Dados moleculares sugerem que o gado zebu do norte da África originou-se do cruzamento de linhagens primitivas locais de taurinos utilizando a introgressão com machos zebuínos. Posteriormente, o gado acompanhou a migração humana através da Ásia, África, Europa e Américas, levando a dispersão e cruzamentos de taurinos e zebuínos. O genoma dos bovinos contem, ao menos, 22.000 genes e o tempo estimado de divergência indica que taurus e indicus se separaram há 1,7 a 2,0 milhões de anos atrás com sequência de nucleotídeos 16.338 e 16.339 respectivamente, diferindo entre si em 237 posições.

Palavras chave: Origem, evolução, taurinos, zebuínos.

 


Palavras-chave


taurinos, zebuinos, genética, evolução

Referências


Mayr, E O que é a evolução? Rio de Janeiro: Editora Rocco Ltda; 2005.

Elsik, CG e cols The Bovine HapMap Consortium The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution Science 2009; 324 (5926): 522-8 e 528-32.

Hiendleder S, Lewalski H, Jenke A. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Bos taurus and Bos indicus provide new insights into intra-species variation, taxonomy and domestication Cytogenet Genome Res 2008;120 (1-2): 150-6.

Edwards CJ, Magee DA, Park SD, McGettingan PA, Lohan AJ, Murphy A, Finlay EK, Shapiro B, Chamberlain AT, Richards MB, Bradley DG, Loftus BJ, MacHugh DE, Edwards CJ. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) PLoS One 2010; 5 (2):e9255

Perez-Pardal L, Royo LJ, Beja-Pereira A, Chen S, Cantet RJC, Trairpe A, Curik I, Sölkner J, Bozzi R, Fernandez I, Álvarez I, Gutiérrez JP, Gómez E, Ponce de León, Goyache F Multiple paternal origins of domestic cattle revealed by Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites. Heredity 2010; 105: 511-9

Mona S, Catalano G, Lari M, Larson G, Boscato P, Casoli A, Sineo L, DiPatti C, Pecchioli E, Caramelli D, Bertorelle G. Population dynamic of the extinct European aurochs: genetic evidence of a north-south differentiation pattern and no evidence of post-glacial expansion BMC Evol Biol 2010; 10:83.

Edwards CJ, Bellongino R, Scheu A. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin of domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs Proc Biol Sci 2007; 274 (1616): 1377-85

Pruvost M, Schwarz R, Correia VB, Champlot S, Braguier S, Morel N, Fernandez-Jalvo Y, Grange T, Geigl EM Freshly excavated fossil bones are best for amplification of ancient DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104 (3): 739-44

Beja-Pereira A, Caranelli D, Laluenza-Fox C, Vernesi C The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA. Proc.Natl Acad Sci USA 2006; 103(21): 8113- 8.

Fan B, Zhi-Qiang Du, Gorbach DM, Rothschild MF. Development and application of high-density SNP Arrays in genomic studies of domestic animals Asian-Aust. J Anim Sci. 2010; 23 (7): 833-47

Ihara N, Takasuga A, Mizoshita K, Takeda H, Sugimoto M, Mizoguchi Y, Hirano T, Itoh T, Watababe T, Reed KM, Snelling WM, Kappes SM, Beattie CW, Bennett GL, Sugimoto Y A comprehensive genetic map of cattle genome based on 3802 microsatellites Genome Res 2010; 1987-98.

Li, M.-H, Kantanen J. Genetic structure of Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) based on microsatellites:clarification for their breed classification. Animal Genetics 2009; 41: 150-8.

Bollongino R, Elsner J, Vigne J-D, Burger J. Y-SNPs do not indicate hybridization between European Auroque and Domestic cattle PLoS One 2008; 3(10) e3418.

Shodi M, Mukesh M, Mishra BP Evaluation of genetic differentiation in Bos indicus cattle breeds from Marathwada region of India using microsatellite polymorphism Animal Biotechnology 2005; 16: 127-37.

Freeman AR, Bradley DG, Nagda S, Gibson JP, Hanotte O. Combination of multiple microsatellite data sets to investigate genetic diversity and admixture of domestic cattle Animal Genetics 2005; 37: 1-9.

Miretti MM, Pereira-Jr, HA, Poli MA, Contel EPB, Ferro JA African-derived mitochondria in South American native cattle breeds (Bos taurus): evidence of a new taurine mitochondrial lineage. J Hered 2002; 93(5): 323-30.

Qu K, Wu G, Liao X, Jin X, Shao G, Yang G, Yuan B, Huang B, Wen J, Zhang Y Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop Variation and Genetic Background of Brahman Cattle Zoological Research 2006; 27 (6): 615-20.

Liu W-S, Beattie CW, Ponce de León FA Bovine Y chromosome microsatellite polymorphisms. Cytogenet Genome Res 2003;102: 53-58.

Bradley DG, MacHugh DE, Loftus RT, Sow RS, Hoste CH, Cunningham EP Zebu-taurine variation in Y chromosome DNA: a sensitive assay for genetic introgression in West African trypanotolerant cattle population. Animal Genetics 1994; 25: 7-12.

MacHugh DE, Shriver MD, Loftus RT, Cunningham P, Bradley DG Microssatélite DNA variation and the evolution, domestication and phylogeography of taurine and zebu cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). Genetics 1997; 146 (3): 1071-86

Hanotte O, Tawah CL, Bradley DG, OkomoM, Verjee Y, Ochieng J, Rege JEO Geographic distribution and frequency of a taurine Bos Taurus an indicine Bos indicus Y specific allele amongst sub-Saharan African cattle breeds. Molec Ecol 2000; 9 (4): 387-96.

Mannen H, Kohno M, Nagat Y, Tsuji S, Bradley DG Independent mitochondrial origin and historical genetic differentiation in North Eastern Asian cattle Molec Phylogen Evol 2004;32(2): 539-44.

Gotherström A, Anderung C, Hellborg L, Elburg R, Smith C, Bradley DG, Ellegren H Cattle domestication in the Near East was followed by hybridization with aurouchs bulls in Europe Proc R Soc B 2005; 272: 2345-50.

Farah BF DNA Segredos e Mistérios São Paulo: Sarvier Editora de Livros Médicos 2007.

Wiggans GR, Sonstegard TS, VanRaden PM, Matukumalli LK, Schnabel RD, Taylor JF, Schenkel Van Tassel CP Selection of single-nucleotide polymorphism and quality of genotipes used in genomic evaluation of dairy cattle in the United States and Canada J Dairy Science 2009; 92 (7): 3431-6.

Hassanin A, Douzery EJP Evolutionary affinity of the enigmatic Saola (Pseudorix nghetinhensis) in the contex of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae. Proc. R Soc London B 1999; 266: 893-900

Futuyama, DJ Biologia Evolutiva São Paulo Ed. Soc Bras Genética 2a. ed.; 1997.

Benton, MJ Paleontologia dos Vertebrados São Paulo Atheneu Editora; 2006.

Rose KD On the origin of the order Artiodactyla Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996; 93: 1705-09.

Hassanin A, Douzery EJP. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of Ruminantia and the alternative position of the Moschidae Syst. Biol. 2003; 52(2): 206-28.

Buntjer JB, Hoff IA, Lenstra JA e cols. Artiodactyl interspersed DNA repeat in cetacean genome. J Molec Evol 1997; 4 (1): 66-9.

Athanassof N Manual do Criador de Bovinos São Paulo Ed. Melhoramentos 6ª Ed. 1957.

Garcia-Fierro B Ganado Vacuno Barcelona Ed. Salvat; 1956.

Epstein H, Mason IL Cattle in:Mason IL Evolution of domesticated animals

London Longman: Mason IL, edition 1984.

Bailey JF, Richards MB, Macauley VA, Colson IB, James IT, Bradley DG, Hedges REM, Sykes BC. Ancient DNA suggests a recent expansion of European cattle from a diverse wild progenitor species. Proc R Soc B 1996;263: 1467.

Grigson C The craniology and relationship of four species of Bos. 5. Bos indicus. J Arch Sci 1980; 7: 3-32.

Felius On the breeds of cattle – Historic and current classification. Diversity 2011; 3: 660-92.

Troy CS, MacHugh DE, Balley JF, Magee DA, Loftus RT, Cunningham P, Chamberlain AT, Sykes BC, Bradley DG Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origin of European cattle. Nature 2001; 410: 1088-91.

Loftus RT, MacHugh DE, Bradley DG, Sharp PM, Cunningham P Evidence for two independent domestications of cattle Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91: 2757-61.

Loftus RT, MacHugh DE, Negere LO, Balain DS, Badi AM, Bradley DG Mitochondrial genetic variation in European, African and Indian cattle populations Animal Genetics 1994;25: 265-71

MacHugh DE, Shriver MD, Loftus RT, Cunningham P, Bradley DG Microssatélite DNA variation and the evolution, domestication and phylogeography of taurine and zebu cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). Genetics 1997; 146 (3): 1071-86.

Bradley DG, Loftus RT, Cunningham P, MacHugh DE Genetics and domestic cattle origins. Evol Antropol 1998; 6: 79-86.

Loftus RT, Ertugrul O, Harba AH, El-Barody MAA, MacHugh DE, Park SDE, Bradley DG A microsatellite survey of cattle from centre of origin: the Near East Molec Ecol 1999; 8:2015-22.

Cymbrom T, Freeman AR, Malheiro MI, Vigne J-D, Bradkey DG. Microsatellite diversity suggests different histories for Mediterranean and Northern European cattle populations. Proc R Soc B 2005; 272: 1837-43.

Ajmone-Marsan P, Garcia JF, Lenstra JA e cols (2010) On the origin of cattle. How aurochs became cattle and colonized the world. Evolutionary Antropology 2010; 19 (4) 148-57.

Negrini R, Nijman IJ, Milanesi E Diferentiation of European cattle by AFLP fingerprinting. Animal Genetics 2007; 38: 60-6.

Chen S, Lin B-Z, Baig M Zebu cattle are an exclusive legacy of the South Asia Neolithic Mol Biol Evol 2010; 27(1): 1-6

Anderung C, Hellborg L, Sedon J, Hanotte O, Göterström. A Investigation of X-and Y-specific single nucleotide polymorphism in taurine (Bos taurus) and indicine (Bos indicus) cattle. Animal Genetics 2007; 38(6): 595-600.

Suzuki e cols (1993) Polymerase chain reaction analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphism in N´Dama and zebu cattle. Anim Genet 1993 24: 339-43.

Frisch JE, Drinkwater R, Harrison B, Johnson S. Classification of the southern African sanga and East African shorthorned zebu. Animal Genetics 1997; 28(2) 77-83.

Jia S, Chen H, Zang G, Wang S, Lei C, Yao R, Han X e cols. Genetic variation of mitochondrial D-Loop Region and Evolution analysis in some Chinese cattle breed. J Genetics and Genomics 2007 34(6): 510-8

Lei CZ, Chen H, Zang HC, Cai X, Liu RY, Luo LY, Wang CF, Ge QL, Zhang RF, Lan XY, Sun WB. Origin and phylogeographical structure of Chinese cattle Animal Genetics 2006; 37: 579-82.

FAO The state of the world´s animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture -first draft 2006.

Switonski M, Ansari HA, Mathew A, Jung HR, Stranzinger G Synaptonemal complex analysis in primary spermatocytes of cattle X zebu hybrids (Bos Taurus X Bos indicus) J Anim Breed Genet 1990; 107: 229-38.

Dollin AE, Murray JD, Gilles CB. Synaptonemal complex analysis of hybrid cattle. II. Bos indicus X Bos taurus F1 and backcross hybrids Genome 1991; 34: 220-7

Switonski M, Stranzinger G. Studies of Synaptonemal complexes in farm mammals – A review J Hered 1998; 89 (6): 473-80.

Meirelles FV, Rosa AJM, Lobo RB, Garcia JM, Smith LC, Duarte AM Is the american zebu really Bos indicus? Genet Molec Biol 1999; 22(4):343-46.

Qu K, Wu G, Liao X. Mitochondrial DNA D-Loop variation and genetic background of Brahman cattle. Zoological Research 2006; 27(6): 615-20.

Hsu TC, Benirschke K. An Atlas of Mammalian Chromosomes. Spring-Verlag: Berlin, Heindelbeg, New York 1967 e 1968.


Texto completo: PDF